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|King of Sweden|
|Reign||25 March 1751 – 12 February 1771|
|Coronation||26 November 1751|
|Prince-Bishop of Lübeck|
|Reign||1727 – 1750|
|Born||14 May 1710|
Gottorp, Schleswig, Duchy of Schleswig
|Died||12 February 1771 (aged 60)|
Stockholm Palace, Stockholm, Sweden
|Burial||30 July 1771|
|Issue||Gustav III of Sweden|
Charles XIII of Sweden
Prince Frederick Adolf, Duke of Östergötland
Sophia Albertina, Abbess of Quedlinburg
|Father||Christian August of Holstein-Gottorp, Prince of Eutin|
|Mother||Princess Albertina Frederica of Baden-Durlach|
Adolf Frederick, or Adolph Frederick (Swedish: Adolf Fredrik, German: Adolf Friedrich; 14 May 1710 – 12 February 1771) was King of Sweden from 1751 until his death in 1771. He was the son of Christian August of Holstein-Gottorp, Prince of Eutin, and Albertina Frederica of Baden-Durlach. He was an uncle of Catherine the Great and husband to Louisa Ulrika of Prussia.
The first king from the House of Holstein-Gottorp, Adolf Frederick was a weak monarch, installed as first in line to the throne following the parliamentary government's failure to reconquer the Baltic provinces in 1741–1743. Aside from a few attempts, supported by pro-absolutist factions among the nobility, to reclaim the absolute monarchy held by previous monarchs, he remained a mere constitutional figurehead until his death.
His reign saw an extended period of internal peace. However, the finances stagnated following failed mercantilist doctrines pursued by the Hat administration. The Hat administration ended during the 1765–1766 parliament, where the Cap opposition took over the government and enacted reforms towards greater economic liberalism, as well as a Freedom of Press Act. The Freedom of Press Act is unique for the time for its curtailing of all censorship, retaining punitive measures only for libeling the monarch or the Church of Sweden.
Adolf Frederick's father was Christian Augustus (1673–1726) duke and a younger prince of Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorp, prince-bishop of Lübeck, and administrator, during the Great Northern War, of the duchies of Holstein-Gottorp for his relative Charles Frederick.
His mother, Albertina Frederica of Baden-Durlach (1682–1755), was a descendant of earlier royal dynasties of Sweden, great-granddaughter of Princess Catherine of Sweden, mother of King Charles X of Sweden. On his mother's side, Adolf Frederick was descended from King Gustav Vasa and Christina Magdalena, a sister of Charles X of Sweden.
From 1727 to 1750 Prince Adolf Frederick was the prince-bishop of Lübeck. This meant he ruled a fief around and including Eutin. After his first cousin, Charles Frederick, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp, died in 1739, Adolf Frederick became the administrator of Holstein-Kiel during the minority of the duke's orphan son, Charles Peter Ulrich. Shortly afterward, the young boy was invited to Russia by his maternal aunt, Empress Elizabeth, who soon declared him her heir. He later became known as Peter III of Russia.
In 1743, Adolf Frederick was elected heir to the throne of Sweden by the Hat faction (Swedish: Hattarna). The Hat faction wanted to obtain better conditions at the Treaty of Åbo from Empress Elizabeth. He succeeded to the Swedish throne on 25 March 1751.
During his 20-year reign, Adolf Frederick was little more than a figurehead, the real power being with the Riksdag of the Estates, often distracted by party strife. Twice he endeavored to free himself from the tutelage of the estates. The first occasion was in 1756. Stimulated by his consort Louisa Ulrika of Prussia (sister of Frederick the Great), he tried to regain a portion of the attenuated prerogative through the Coup of 1756 to abolish the rule of the Riksdag of the Estates and reinstate absolute monarchy in Sweden. He nearly lost his throne in consequence. On the second occasion during the December Crisis of 1768, under the guidance of his eldest son, Gustav, he succeeded in overthrowing the "Cap" (Swedish: Mössorna) senate, but was unable to make any use of his victory.
Adolf Frederick died suddenly in Stockholm on 12 February 1771 with symptoms resembling either heart failure or poisoning. Popular stories about his death having resulted from a large meal (consisting of lobster, caviar, sauerkraut, kippers, and champagne as well as 14 helpings of his favourite dessert hetvägg of semla pastries and hot milk) are considered propagandist by modern writers.
The King was regarded as dependent on others, a weak ruler, and lacking of any talents as a statesman. However, he was allegedly a good husband, a caring father, and a gentle master to his servants. He was scientifically talented and especially interested in astronomy. He also had talent in military matters and in music. His favourite pastime was woodworking, especially to make snuffboxes, which he allegedly spent a great deal of time doing. His hospitality and friendliness were witnessed by many who deeply mourned him at his death.
- (Stillborn) (18 February 1745 in Stockholm)
- Gustav III (1746–1792)
- Charles XIII (1748–1818)
- Frederick Adolf (1750–1803)
- Sofia Albertina (1753–1829)
With Jeanne Du Londel he had one son:
- Adolf Fredriksson (c. 1734-1771), Captain in the Swedish Army.
With Marguerite Morel he had one son who died as a child:
- Frederici (c. 1761 - 1771)
- L. Stavenow. "Adolf Fredrik". Svenskt biografiskt lexikon. Retrieved 1 January 2019.
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- "Adolf Fredrik". Nordisk familjebok. Retrieved 1 January 2019.
- Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 1 (15th ed.). Encyclopædia Britannica. 1991. p. 105. ISBN 9780852295298.
- public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Adolphus Frederick". Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 1 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 211–212. This cites:
- R. Nisbet Bain, Gustavus III. and his Contemporaries, vol. i. (London, 1895).
- Nina Ringbom. "Kristina Magdalena av Pfalz-Zweibrücken". historiesajten.se. Retrieved 1 January 2019.
- "Peter III". Saint-Petersburg.Com. Retrieved 1 January 2019.
- "Hattpartiet, Hattarna". Nordisk familjebok. Retrieved 1 January 2019.
- "Mösspartiet, Mössorna". Nordisk familjebok. Retrieved 1 January 2019.
- "The lowdown on Sweden's best buns". The Local. February 2007. Archived from the original on 16 February 2008.
- Carlstedt, Magnus. "Hetvägg". semlor.nu. Archived from the original on 3 August 2020. Retrieved 1 January 2019.
- Such as Claes Rainer 2021 in Sofia Magdalena : kärlek, revolutioner och mord ISBN 9789198624915 pp. 152-153
- "Gustav III (January 24, 1746 – March 29, 1792)". European Royal History. Retrieved 1 January 2019.
- Rainer, Claes (2019). Lovisa Ulrika: konst och kuppförsök. Stockholm: Bokförlaget Langenskiöld
- Gunilla Roempke (1994). Gunilla Roempke. ed. Vristens makt – dansös i mätressernas tidevarv (The power of the ankle - dancer in the epoch of the royal mistresses) Stockholm: Stockholm Fischer & company. ISBN 91-7054-734-3
- af Klercker, Cecilia, ed. Hedvig Elisabeth Charlottas dagbok [The diary of Hedvig Elizabeth Charlotte] (in Swedish). VI 1797-1799. (1927) Translated by Cecilia af Klercker. Stockholm: P.A. Norstedt & Söners förlag. pp. 290–291
- Genealogie ascendante jusqu'au quatrieme degre inclusivement de tous les Rois et Princes de maisons souveraines de l'Europe actuellement vivans [Genealogy up to the fourth degree inclusive of all the Kings and Princes of sovereign houses of Europe currently living] (in French). Bourdeaux: Frederic Guillaume Birnstiel. 1768. p. 28.
- Media related to Adolf Frederick of Sweden at Wikimedia Commons